HỆ THỐNG CANH TÁC LÚA CẢI TIẾN (SRI) TRONG BẢO VỆ MÔI TRƯỜNG VÀ GIẢM THIỂU BIẾN ĐỔI KHÍ HẬU - BÀI TỔNG QUAN

Thông tin bài báo

Ngày nhận bài: 14/04/21                Ngày hoàn thiện: 13/05/21                Ngày đăng: 19/05/21

Các tác giả

1. Hoàng Văn Phụ Email to author, Khoa Quốc tế - ĐH Thái Nguyên
2. Hà Xuân Linh, Khoa Quốc tế - ĐH Thái Nguyên
3. Lê Thu Trà, Khoa Quốc tế - ĐH Thái Nguyên

Tóm tắt


Do diện tích canh tác ướt lớn, sử dụng nhiều nước hơn và sử dụng nhiều hóa chất đầu vào, canh tác lúa thông thường (CRC) là một trong những nguồn chính của CH4 và N2O gây ô nhiễm môi trường và biến đổi khí hậu. Để giải quyết vấn đề này, hệ thống thâm canh lúa (SRI) đã được nghiên cứu và áp dụng ở khoảng 15 triệu nông hộ sản xuất nhỏ tại hơn 60 quốc gia. Kết quả của hầu hết các nhà nghiên cứu cho thấy áp dụng SRI sẽ giúp giảm thiểu chất thải rắn, tiết kiệm năng lượng và nước từ sản xuất phân bón. Bên cạnh đó, nó còn bảo vệ môi trường bằng cách giảm dư lượng phân bón thải ra môi trường. Nguyên lý cấy thưa của SRI còn giúp thông thoáng, hạn chế sâu bệnh, tăng đa dạng sinh học và thiên địch trên ruộng lúa. Bên cạnh đó, kỹ thuật tưới của SRI là nước – cạn xen kẽ đã làm môi trường ruộng lúa từ yếm khí sang hiếu khí và sử dụng phân ủ đã làm giảm phát thải CH4, CO2, N2O. Hơn nữa, áp dụng SRI cho năng suất của lúa cao hơn canh tác truyền thống, trong khi đầu vào thấp hơn. Trong bài viết này, chúng tôi tổng hợp các kết quả nghiên cứu SRI ở Việt Nam và trên thế giới nhằm cung cấp bằng những bằng chứng chứng minh SRI đã góp phần bảo vệ môi trường và giảm thiểu biến đổi khí hậu.

Từ khóa


SRI; Hệ thống canh tác lúa cải tiến; Canh tác lúa; Bảo vệ môi trường; Giảm thiểu biến đổi khí hậu

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Tài liệu tham khảo


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34238/tnu-jst.4343

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